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مُساهمةموضوع: engine history    الأحد نوفمبر 10, 2013 4:26 am

Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir

Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir
Born 12 January 1822
Mussy-la-Ville, Luxembourg

Died 4 August 1900 (aged 78)
La Varenne-Sainte-Hilaire
Nationality Belgian
Fields Engineering

Known for Lenoir cycle , internal combustion engine

Nikolaus August Otto

Nikolaus Otto
Born 10 June 1832
Holzhausen an der Haide

Died 26 January 1891 (aged 58)
Cologne

Nationality German

Occupation Inventor

Known for internal-combustion engine

Engine history:- (Information about  who developed the engine )
Jean Joseph Étienne Lenoir also known as Jean J. Lenoir (12 January 1822 – 4 August 1900) was a Belgian engineer who developed the internal combustion engine in 1858. Prior designs for such engines were patented as early as 1807, but none were commercially successful. Lenoir's engine was commercialized in sufficient quantities to be considered a success, a first for the internal combustion engine.
He was born in Mussy-la-Ville (then in Luxembourg, part of the Belgian Province of Luxembourg since 1839). By the early 1850s he had emigrated to France, taking up residence in Paris, where he developed an interest in electroplating. His interest in the subject led him to make electrical inventions including an improved electric telegraph.( Lenoir gas engine 1860 )

Nikolaus August Otto (10 June 1832, Holzhausen an der Haide, Nassau - 26 January 1891, Cologne) was the German inventor of the first internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber. Though the concept of four strokes, with the vital compression of the mixture before ignition, had been invented and patented in 1861 by Alphonse Beau de Rochas, Otto was the first to make it practical. ( he developed gas engine 1867 )
   

  Description:- ( How the engine works )
Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in there? A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and wires to the uninitiated.
All of You might want to know what's going on simply out of curiosity. Or perhaps you are buying a new car, and you hear things like "3.0 liter V-6" and "dual overhead cams" and "tuned port fuel injection." What does all ¬of that mean?
In this article, we'll discuss the basic idea behind an engine a¬nd then go into detail about how all the pieces fit together, what can go wrong and how to increase performance.
The purpose of a gasoline car engine is to convert gasoline into motion so that your car can move. Currently the easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. Therefore, a car engine is an internal combustion engine -- combustion takes place internally.

( how steam engine works ):-
A steam engine is a device that converts the potential energy that exists as pressure in steam, and converts that to mechanical force. Steam engines were the first engine type to see widespread use. They were first invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1705, and James Watt (who we remember each time we talk about "60-wattlight bulbs" and the such) made big improvements to steam engines in 1769. Steam engines ¬powered all early locomotives, steam boats and factories, and therefore acted as the foundation of the Industrial Revolution. In this article, we'll learn exactly how steam engines work!
Early examples were the steam locomotive trains, and steamships that relied on these steam engines for movement. The Industrial Revolution came about primarily because of the steam engine. The thirty seconds or so required to develop pressure made steam less favored for automobiles, which are generally powered by internal combustion engines.
The first steam device was invented by Hero of Alexandria, a Greek, before 300BC, but never utilized as anything other than a toy. While designs had been created by varous people in the meanwhile, the first practical steam enginewas patented by James Watt, a Scottish inventor, in 1769. Steam engines are of various types but most are reciprocal piston or turbine devices.
The strength of the steam engine for modern purposes is in its ability to convert raw heat into mechanical work. Unlike the internal combustion engine, the steam engine is not particular about the source of heat. Since the oxygen for combustion is unmetered, steam engines burn fuel cleanly and efficiently, with relatively little pollution.
One source of inefficiency is that the condenser causes losses by being somewhat hotter than the outside world. Thus any closed-cycle engine will always be somewhat less efficient than any open-cycle engine, because of condenser losses.
Most notably, without the use of a steam engine nuclear energy could not be harnessed for useful work, as a nuclear reactor does not directly generate either mechanical work or electrical energy - the reactor itself does nothing but sit there and get hot. It is the steam engine which converts that heat into useful work.*



( Type of engine ):-


                                                                                                                    Rudolf Diesel, inventor of the diesel engine.
1. Diesel engine :
Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Diesel's story actually begins with the invention of the gasoline engine. Nikolaus August Otto had invented and patented the gasolineengine by 1876. This invention used the four-stroke combustion principle, also known as the "Otto Cycle," and it's the basic premise for most car engines today. In its early stage, the gasoline engine wasn't very efficient, and other major methods of transportation such as the steam engine fared poorly as well. Only about 10 percent of the fuel used in these types of engines actually moved a vehicle. The rest of the fuel simply produced useless heat.

I¬n 1878, Rudolf Diesel was attending the Polytechnic High School of Germany (the equivalent of an engineering college) when he learned about the low efficiency of gasoline and steam engines. This disturbing information inspired him to create an engine with a higher efficiency, and he devoted much of his time to developing a "Combustion Power Engine." By 1892 Diesel had obtained a patentfor what we now call the diesel engine.



2. How Two-stroke Engines Work :

If you have read How Car Engines Work and How Diesel Engines Work, then you are familiar with the two types of engines found in nearly every car and truck on the road today. Both gasoline and diesel automotive engines are classified asfour-stroke reciprocating internal-combustion engines.
There is a third type of engine,¬ known as a two-stroke engine, that is commonly found in lower-power applications. Some of the devices that might have a two-stroke engine include:
• Lawn and garden equipment (chain saws, leaf blowers, trimmers)
• Dirt bikes
• Mopeds
• Jet skis
• Small outboard motors
Radio-controlled model planes
3. How HEMI Engines Work:

If you like cars, then you have probably heard of the HEMI engine. If you were born in the 1960s or before, you remember the phenomenon created by Chrysler's HEMI engines in the 1950s, '60s and '70s. If you follow muscle carsor drag racing, you know that the426 HEMI engine is a popular engine because of its performance. You've probably also heard of the HEMI engines that Chrysler began using in 2003 Dodge trucks.

4. How Rotary Engines Work:

A rotary engine is an internal combustion engine, like the enginein your car, but it works in a completely different way than the conventional piston engine.
In a piston engine, the same volume of space (the cylinder) alternately does four different jobs -- intake, compression, combustion and exhaust. A rotary engine does these sam¬e four jobs, but each one happens in its own part of the housing. It's kind of like having a dedicated cylinder for each of the four jobs, with the piston moving continually from one to the next.
The rotary engine (originally conceived and developed by Dr. Felix Wankel) is sometimes called a Wankel engine, or Wankel rotary engine.



5. V-type engine:

Cylinders in this engine are arranged in two in-line banks, typically tilted 60-90 degrees apart from each other and driving a common crankshaft. The vast majority of V engines are water-cooled. The V design provides a higher power-to-weight ratio than an inline engine, while still providing a small frontal area. Perhaps the most famous example of this design is the legendary Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, a 27-litre (1649 in3) 60° V12 engine used in, among others, the Spitfires that played a major role in the Battle of Britain.


1. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blenginehistory.htm
2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engine
3. http://www.topspeed.com/cars/engine-s-history-ar11139.html
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Étienne_Lenoir
5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikolaus_Otto
6. http://inventors.about.com/library/inventors/blsteamengine.htm
7. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aircraft_engine
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